Hey guys 🙂 Welcome to the first part of my travel series “Amazing Madhya Pradesh” 🙂
For those of you new here, you might want to read my previous post about this beautiful central Indian state. Here it is: Madhya Pradesh, The Heart of Incredible India
On my eight-day trip through Madhya Pradesh in April 2015, I visited some of its well-known places: the historical city of Indore; the holy cities that find mention in ancient Hindu epics – Ujjain, Omkareshwar and Maheshwar; the beautiful capital city of Bhopal; the ancient Sanchi Stupa and Udaigiri Caves; and the historical fort of Mandu. I spent five wonderful days in the charming and delightful city of Indore, visiting some of its main attractions, and the famous destinations nearby – Ujjain, Omkareshwar, Maheshwar and Mandu.
Before I share with you my lovely time in Indore, here’s a brief introduction to this cultural city which is also the commercial capital, the most developed city and the most populous city of Madhya Pradesh. Happy reading 🙂
Indore is situated on the Malwa Plateau on the banks of two small rivulets – the Saraswati and the Kahn (modern name Khan). They unite at the centre of the city where a small 18th century temple of Indreshwar still exists. From the deity Indreshwar, the city got its name Indrapur which then evolved to Indur. The city came under the rule of Maratha kings of the Holkar dynasty in 1733, when the dynasty’s founder, Malhar Rao Holkar was appointed as the Maratha Governor of Malwa region by the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao. By the end of his reign, the Holkar state was independent with Indore as its capital. Malhar Rao Holkar was succeeded by his daughter-in-law Ahilyabai Holkar, one of the greatest women in Indian history. Widowed when she was barely out of her teens, Rani Ahilyabai took the responsibility of Indore into her own hands and was instrumental in planning and building this city. She ruled from her palace-fort at Maheshwar, situated to the south of Indore. Ahilyabai Holkar was a great architectural patron and spent a lot of money on the construction of temples across the Indian subcontinent. Her 30-year-old reign brought in peace and development to Indur which became Indore during the British rule. On 16th June 1948, the Holkar State was officially merged with Independent India.
Indore is the largest city and the commercial capital of Madhya Pradesh. During the reign of the last ruler, Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar, the Prime Minister of the Holkar State was the legendary Rai Bahadur Sir Siremal Bapna, who is credited with bringing Indore into the modern age. He was an able and honest administrator, a great social reformer, a great philanthropist and a modern day saint. Today, Indore is the most developed city of Madhya Pradesh. Its strategic location, being in close proximity to Mumbai (593 km) and Delhi (807 km), has also contributed to its manifold development.
A central power city, Indore exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment in the state. At the same time it maintains a strong connection with its glorious past. It is the birthplace of the Indore Gharana of Hindustani Classical music, as well as of the noted playback singer Lata Mangeshkar, also called “the Nightingale of India”. Among handicrafts, its exquisite Maheshwari and Chanderi saris are a connoisseurs’ delight.
Indore was the first city in the country to have toll road and a private telephone network. It is also one of the foremost centres of education in central India. Many institutions in the city predate Indian Independence. Other than this, there are a number of them which are amongst the best in the country. Indore is the only city in India which is having both, an IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) and an IIM (Indian Institute of Management). It has a CAT (Centre for Advanced Technology) which is India’s main research centre on Laser Technology. It is host to many industries like automobile, textile, IT, etc. With latest technological advancements, the city has become the IT hub of Madhya Pradesh.
Due to its location on the southern edge of the Malwa plateau, Indore makes an excellent tourist destination. It is known for its architectural splendour. A strong historical background has contributed to its rich cultural heritage, which is a fine blend of Malwa, Maratha and Marwari cultures. The city is also an access point for an MP itinerary to visit the pilgrim towns of Ujjain (55 km) and Omkareshwar (78 km), heritage and temple town of Maheshwar (91 km) and hill station of Mandu (99 km).
Indore is famous for its food, specially its indori chaat (spicy snacks). The best and the most popular places to savour its signature cuisine is at Sarafa Bazaar and Chappan Dukaan. Sarafa is a busy jewellery market during daytime and gets converted into a night food market from 8 PM till the wee hours of morning. The bustling food stalls offer a variety of Indian fast food, chaats and Indore specialties like sabudana khichri ( a sago preparation), dahi-vada (dumplings soaked in curd), chhole tikiya ( patties with chickpea), makke ka kees(a corn preparation) and sweet delights like shikanji, jalebi, malpua, etc. Chappan Chowk (or Chappan Dukaan, which means 56 shops) offers a wide variety of namkeens (snacks), chaat and fast food items from morning till 10:00 PM. The typical Indore breakfast food is poha-jalebi, a combination of spicy flattened rice preparation and pretzel-shaped goodies dipped in sugar syrup, which is available at food stalls early in the morning.
Indore has numerous gardens, amusement parks and picnic spots. The city’s oldest park is the centrally-located Nehru Park. It was built by the British and was earlier known as Biscow Park, open only to British before independence. After independence, it was renamed as Nehru Park.
The Central Museum also known as Indore Museum is one of the interesting city buildings. Among other fine artefacts, it houses exquisitely-carved pre-medieval and medieval Hindu and Jain sculptures of Madhya Pradesh, from 5000 BC to 12th century AD. Built in 1929, the museum houses provides a deep knowledge about the culture and history of the warm and friendly people of Indore.
And now, here’s my story 🙂 Enjoy!
Sunday, 19 April 2015. My Mumbai-Indore Indigo flight lands at the Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport in Indore at 12:10 PM. Devi Ahilyabai Holkar. The Queen of the Holkar dynasty that ruled over Indore and parts of the present-day state of Madhya Pradesh. One of the greatest women in Indian history to whom the city of Indore owes much of its success. It feels really nice to be in this wonderful city.
The airport’s prepaid taxi costs 250 rupees to the city centre which is 10 KM away. I have listed down a few budget hotels in the centre. But the taxi driver offers me a good recommendation. Hotel Balwas International. It looks good and is ideally-located in South Tukoganj area, behind the city High Court. The discounted AC room tariff is 1500 rupees including taxes.
The hotel restaurant, Kandahar, is famous for its meat dishes. I’m not much of a meat eater. Yet, I settle for mutton curry and rice. It’s absolutely delicious. The meat is succulent. At 2 PM, I start my city exploration. I hire an autorickshaw for six hours at 850 rupees to cover some of the main attractions. The rickshaw driver tells me that his ancestors left their village near Pune to settle in Indore. This was during the reign of Rani Ahilyabai Holkar, when thousands of people from present-day Maharashtra came to settle in this peaceful and prosperous region. Even today, a large number of the city residents comprise of Marathi speakers.
The first stop of my tour is close by. One of the city’s finest buildings and the seat of the Holkars – the Lal Bagh Palace. Situated on the banks of River Saraswati, the Lal Bagh Palace is reputed to be the best garden palace in central India. It is a three-storeyed structure surrounded by a vast garden, which at one time had one of the best rose gardens of the country.
Designed by Triggs of Calcutta (now Kolkata), the heavy-duty cast iron entrance gates were modelled on those at London’s Buckingham Palace. They were imported from England…
Watch my video: The main gates of Lal Bagh Palace
The imposing white palace is designed in European style with Italian marble columns and Belgium stained glass windows. Its construction was started in 1853 by Tukojirao II. It was completed by his grandson Tukojirao III in 1926. He was the last king to reside in this palace; he lived here until his death in 1978. Made with marble from Italy, crushed marble from France and sandalwood, the 45-room complex once boasted of a 20-acre garden with exquisite fountains. The palace’s art and architecture was modelled on that of the fabulous Palace of Versailles near Paris. An underground tunnel connected the main palace with the kitchens on the opposite bank of the river. Another interesting feature was a wooden ballroom floor mounted on springs.
A part of the palace has been converted into a museum. It exhibits prehistoric and antique artefacts, paintings and signatures items from the Holkar era. The entry fee is 10 rupees. Some of the palace’s valuable items are on display, but I assume most of its valuables to be somewhere else. Some of the beautiful palace rooms are open to public. Marvellous paintings on the walls and ceilings, grand chandeliers, Persian carpets… wow! Dining rooms, queen’s bedroom, sitting room, even bathrooms…very impressive. But the interesting ballroom is closed. Damn. There’s a mini-planetarium, but it’s closed.
The lush green garden…
Statue of Queen Victoria…
Watch my video: Lal Bagh Palace of Indore
One of the interesting sights is this fountain…
In 1987, the Madhya Pradesh Government acquired Lal Bagh along with 70 acres of surrounding land for just 65 lakhs (6.5 million) rupees, when the land alone would have fetched 2.5 crores (25 million) rupees in the market at that time.
Another Holkar palace, Manik Bagh, was the residence of Tukojirao III’s son, Yeshwant Rao Holkar, the last king of Indore, who lived there till his death in 1956. After his crowning in 1926, when he was still in his early twenties, the young king commissioned a prominent German architect to build his residence. The palace was a masterpiece of modern art designed and decorated with technical and aesthetic refinements. The innovative decor included darkly-tinted and clear window panes in metal frames for regulating the light of day, the first air conditioning system in India, pictorial carpets, lighting fixtures as light sculptures, walls treated in alternating colours, Para vents as cubist paintings in space, etc. The palace furniture and fixtures were imported from Berlin, London and Paris. In the 1930s, Manik Bagh Palace evoked a lot of interest in the West. In 1980, a collection of the palace furnishings were sold at Monte Carlo for 8 crores (80 million) rupees. Today, Manik Bagh Palace houses the Office of the Commissioner, Customs and Central Excise.
The city’s rich heritage and culture is reflected through the beautifully built palaces and temples. My next stop is a short distance away. Annapurna Temple is a famous temple of the goddess of food. There’s a Shiva temple next to it. The rickshaw driver is eager to show me some of the temples within the city. So next, I’m at the Suryamandir (or Sun Temple). It’s a peaceful place with a well-tended garden…
Bada Ganapati temple has one of the largest statues of Lord Ganesha in the world. It was built in 1875. Next is the Kanch Mandir, a beautiful Jain temple whose walls, ceilings, floors, pillars and door knobs are made entirely of glass and mirrors. It has glass paintings, cut glass chandeliers and lantern-type glass lamps too. The temple was built in early 20th century by the city’s “cotton king” Sir Seth Hukumchand. It is located in the Kapda Bazaar (cloth market) area.
The city’s oldest and most popular market is the Maharaja Tukuganj Cloth Market or MT Market, a wholesale market famous for traditional Maheshwari saris with their distinguishing borders and the high-quality Chanderi saris. Sitlamata Bazaar is popular for retail clothing and saris. There are several specialized markets in the city. Among them are Sarafa Bazaar (jewellery market), Bartan Bazaar (utensils market), Khajuri Market (books and stationery market), Marothia Bazaar (market for arts & crafts and groceries), M.T.H. Compound (electronic home appliances market); Siyaganj (market for hardware and paints); and Kasera Bazaar (market for metal work and artifacts). Department stores and showrooms of branded clothing are found at Kothari Market, Heritage Market, Topkhana Market, R.N.T. Marg; Palasia Market; and Moolchand Market. Most of the markets are closed on Sunday.
Driving past the narrow market lanes, I feel as though I’m in Pune city. Both these cosmopolitan cities have a Maratha culture, and being educational centres, a growing influx of student population. By the time I reach the city’s main square, it’s 4:30 PM. The landmark here is the city’s iconic and most prominent structure – the Rajwada or the Holkar Palace.
Watch my video: The outer facade of Rajwada
The original Rajwada, in this same place, was built in 1747 by the founder of the Holkar dynasty, Malhar Rao Holkar I. It was completely destroyed in an attack in 1801. The present day majestic and imposing structure, with a magnificent seven-storeyed gateway, was constructed by Malhar Rao Holkar II in 1818. The palace was used by Holkars for residential purposes, public receptions and state ceremonies. It’s a blend of Maratha, Mughal and French style of architecture. It was taken over by Madhya Pradesh government and was opened to the public in 1976.
The lower three floors are made of stone and the upper floors are made of wood, which made it very vulnerable to destruction by fire. It faced three fire disasters in the past. The last and the worst one took place in 1984, when shops lining the palace were torched by Congress Party supporters in mob violence against Sikhs after the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The fire spread quickly, and the palace was completely destroyed. Only the front façade remained. Now, the palace has been renovated to some extent. The palace entry fee is 10 rupees. In addition, I pay 25 rupees for non-professional camera photography.
The grand doorway of the palace leads into a vast courtyard surrounded by beautiful galleries and delicate arches.
The upper floor…
The courtyard hosts art exhibitions and classical music concerts. A part of the palace is still maintained by the Holkar family’s trust. There’s a small museum and a temple in the premises. The museum closes at 5:00 PM. Exhibits include old photographs, paintings, arms and ammunition, items from the Holkar era, etc.
Painting of Rani Ahilyabai Holkar…
Born in 1725, Rani Ahilyabai was a great administrator and builder. At eight, she impressed Malhar Rao Holkar, army commander to Peshwa Bajirao and founder of the Holkar dynasty, who decided to get his son Khanderao married to her. Ahilyabai excelled at administrative and military strategies under the guidance of her father-in-law. After her husband’s death in 1754, she took over the reins of the kingdom. Her keen interest in education, planning, religion and charity set her apart from the rest of the rulers in India. Her charity extended beyond her territory to the rest of India.
The Holkar family did not use public funds to meet their personal and family expenses. They had their personal fund from their private property. Ahilyabai inherited personal funds which at that time were estimated to be sixteen crores (160 million) rupees. She used personal fund in charitable works. She built numerous Hindu temples, dharamshalas (free lodging) and facilities for religious worship and for pilgrims throughout the country. She rebuilt numerous temples destroyed by Muslim invaders. Two of the 12 jyotirlingas, Kashi Vishwanath temple of Varanasi and Somnath temple in Gujarat, were built by her.
Here are a few words written about Rani Ahilyabai in those times:
“This great ruler in Indore encouraged all within her realm to do their best, Merchants produced their finest cloths, trade flourished, the farmers were at peace and oppression ceased, for each case that came to the queens notice was dealt with severely. She loved to see her people prosper, and to watch the fine cities grow, and to watch that her subjects were not afraid to display their wealth, lest the ruler should snatch it from them. Far and wide the roads were planted with shady trees, and wells were made, and rest-houses for travellers. The poor, the homeless, the orphaned were all helped according to their needs. Hindu and Muslims alike revered the famous Queen and prayed for her long life.
“Definitely no woman and no ruler is like Ahilyabai Holkar.”
“Ahilyabai Holkar, the ‘philosopher-queen’ of Malwa, had evidently been an acute observer of the wider political scene.
“The Great Dhangar Maratha lady who affords the noblest example of wisdom, goodness and virtue.
An English poem written by Joanna Baillie in 1849 reads:
“For thirty years her reign of peace,
The land in blessing did increase;
And she was blessed by every tongue,
By stern and gentle, old and young.
Yea, even the children at their mothers feet
Are taught such homely rhyming to repeat
“In latter days from Brahma came,
To rule our land, a noble Dame,
Kind was her heart, and bright her fame,
And Ahilya was her honoured name.”
Rani Ahilyabai laid down the foundation of the indomitable Holkar army in 1792. She was a very able ruler and organizer, highly respected during her lifetime, and considered as a saint by a grateful people after her death. Respected historians have sung her praises in their books. One English writer quoted that which Akbar is among male sovereigns, is Ahilyabai Holkar among female sovereigns.
Arms and weapons from the bygone era…
The seven-storeyed structure seen from the courtyard…
Watch my video: Courtyard of Rajwada
A distant view of the palace with the statue of Rani Ahilyabai Holkar…
Image courtesy: http://www.indorerocks.com/attractions/CINEMA/Rajwada/9
Adjacent to the palace complex is the Sarafa Bazaar, a glistening jewellery market during the day and a buzzing food bazaar by night. There are some all-day restaurants too. Late in the evening, vendors line up their food carts or kiosks outside each jewellery shop to serve customers till the wee hours of morning. The food sold here is vegetarian. It includes a wide variety of the city’s specialties like aloo tikki, chhole-tikiya, dahi vada, bhutte ka kees, garaadu, samosa, kachori, pani – puri, dahi papdi, dahi chaat, sabudana ki khichdi, pav-bhaji, parantha, idli, dosa, sandwich, pizza, fried rice, noodles, vegetable Manchurian, jalebi (and jaleba), malpua, rabdi, gulab jamun, shikanji (with rabdi and curd), kulfi, falooda, ice cream, fruit salad, gajak, etc.
A short distance away is Chhatri Bagh. Chhatris are the tombs or cenotaphs erected in memory of Holkar rulers and their family members. In the evening, all the canopies or chhatris are illuminated, highlighting the beauty of the Maratha architecture.
Watch my video: Chhatri Bagh
Along the MG Road stands this Indo-Gothic style town hall built in 1904. It was designed and constructed by architect Mr. Charles Frederick Stevens from Mumbai and was inaugurated by Prince of Wales, George V in 1905.
Originally named King Edward Hall, it was renamed as Mahatma Gandhi Hall in 1948. It hosts art, book and cultural exhibitions.
At around 5:30 PM, I’m at Chappan Dukan (or just Chappan). The name literally means 56 shops. Originally, when the market started, there were 56 shops here on MG Road.
Today, the foodie & convenience market has extended to the surrounding area and includes restaurants and cafes. But the name “Chappan Dukan” has remained. The shops open at 6:00 AM to serve Indore’s ubiquitous breakfast poha-jalebi, and close at 10:00 PM. The food market offers a variety of food items, especially chaats, sweets, fast food, etc. On the rickshaw driver’s recommendation I try the city’s special drink, shikhanji made of yoghurt. After tasting it, I realize that it’s piyush, a popular drink of Maharashtra. Poha is a typical Maharashtrian breakfast dish too. Chole-tikiya, a Punjabi snack, is popular here. I sample it and find it similar to what is served in Mumbai restaurants.
Carrying on with my tour, I’m back to temple-hopping. Indore is a city of saints. There are many devotees of Shri Gajanan Maharaj in Indore. In 1988, a temple was constructed 15 minutes from the city centre at Paliwal Nagar, a quiet residential area.
Around 6:45 PM, I’m at Shri Khajrana Ganesh Mandir, one of the famous Hindu temples in the country. The idol of Lord Ganesha is very old. It is believed that it was hidden in a well to safeguard it from the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Rani Ahilyabai Holkar built a temple and installed the idol in it. The small temple has grown into a large complex. It is believed that the presiding deity fulfils the wishes of his devotees. Large numbers of devotees offer their prayers at this temple, especially on Wednesdays and Sundays.
Watch my video: Shri Khajrana Ganesh Mandir of Indore
The increasing influx of students and people to Indore has given it a cosmopolitan lifestyle. People are very simple here and enjoy life. There are plenty of attractive places to relax in this city. Among them is the beautiful Atal Bihari Vajpayee Regional Park – also known as Pipliyapala Park or Indore Regional Park. Located along the banks of Pipliapala Lake, the park covers 80 acres of the lake and 42 acres of the surrounding land. The entry fee is 25 rupees for adults. Beautiful sprawling gardens, boating, musical fountain, jumping jet fountains, Artists’ Village, open amphitheatre, fast food zone and so on. The park is an enchanting place. There are paddle boats, speedboats and even… a mini cruiser – Malwa Queen – with two decks, a restaurant and private party rooms. I reach the place just to see the 80-seater set off on its last cruise of the day. Being Sunday, there are large numbers of visitors in the park. The musical fountain, mist fountain and jumping jet fountains are lovely. Joggers and fitness freaks are seen here and there. I can imagine working out in this beautiful place.
On the way back to my hotel, I drop by the Nehru Stadium to see a huge cricket bat made of concrete, The Vijay Balla (Victory Bat). The cricket bat statue bears the names of the players of the Indian team which won the test series against England and West Indies in 1971 and 1972. While a number of other sport activities are held at the Nehru Stadium, the city’s Holkar Stadium hosts national as well as international cricket matches.
I’m back in my room by 9 PM. My next day’s programme is a trip to the ancient city of Ujjain.
Monday, 20 April 2015. At 9:30 AM, I leave my hotel to catch a bus for Ujjain. After a ten-hour long city tour, I return to Indore at around 11:00 PM.
Tuesday, 21 April 2015. I have hired a private taxi for my trip to Omkareshwar and Maheshwar. It’s an AC Santro car. The hire costs 2200 rupees. I start out at 9:30 AM and return at around 8 PM.
The car driver has recommended me a nice restaurant called Nafees located near Palasia police station. That’s where I have my dinner: kababs, spicy mutton curry and roti. It’s delicious…
Wednesday, 22 April 2015. I check out from my hotel at around 10:15 AM. Even at this hour, it’s unbearably hot. Most women have covered their heads and faces with a dupatta. I’m adequately sun-protected too: large sunglasses, cap on head, face and neck covered by a light cotton stole.
A Volvo bus service, Chartered bus, has buses departing for Bhopal every 30 minutes from 5:30 AM to 11:30 PM. Its buses start from AICTSL Campus (city bus depot). Tickets cost 325 rupees for the three-and-a-half-hour journey. The 11 AM bus is fully booked. There’s just one window-seat available in the front on the 11:30AM bus. Lucky me! Soon, I’m on my way to Bhopal…
Thursday, 25 April 2015. I’m back in Indore at around 2:00 PM. Having purchased two beautiful silk saris (one of them, a Chanderi sari) in Bhopal, I want to shop for one in Indore. I always shop for well-known and locally-made saris while visiting new cities.
Indore once had a flourishing cotton textile industry. But not anymore. There are no cloth mills here today. Having read that Maheshwari and Chanderi saris are made in Maheshwar and Chanderi towns, I’m surprised when shopkeepers tell me that these lovely saris come from Surat and Ratlam. No just these saris, almost all the saris in city shops come from Surat and Ratlam! Really? This is what I have read about Chanderi saris: The town of Chanderi has guarded one secret very dearly, for centuries. Even the British invaders with their mill-made cotton couldn’t defeat the moonshine radiance of the fabric created by Indian weavers using raw spun cotton. With time, these matchless artisans started using Japanese silk with cotton. These saris are adored globally for being lightweight and thin with intricate golden zari border.
Whatever, I pick two saris as city souvenirs. And a white salwar kameez. The pure white fabric feels so soft, but I already know that it isn’t made here.
Just behind my hotel is Treasure Island, the state’s first mall-cum-multiplex and the city’s biggest shopping mall, which also houses a luxury hotel, Sarovar Portico. The mall has been closed for a few months. Further down the road, there are some nice-looking hotels. Hotel Shreemaya looks the best, and it’s well-located too.
Wandering around, I find a paan store. The first day’s rickshaw driver had told me that visitors love the paan of this city. I stop to ask for the specialty. Chocolate paan. Actually, it’s a mini-paan dipped in chocolate and stored in the refrigerator. Tastes good, but it’s quite small. So I pop in another.
It’s my last evening in Indore and I haven’t visited Sarafa yet. But more than fast food, I want to try Dal Bafla, a traditional Malwa dish, which I’m told I will get at a small restaurant near the railway station. It’s 5:00 PM, so I wonder if they are serving it at this time. They are. Not just Dal Bafla, but a thali at 140 rupees This is it, Dal Bafla…
Small dumplings of wheat, cooked in a tandoor, dipped in ghee and crumbled to be served with dal. The thali includes salad, papad, two vegetables, rabdi, dahi-vada and ladoo (or churma). It’s so filling. I brush aside the thought of having dinner at Sarafa. I return to my hotel and that’s it for the day.
Friday, 26 April 2015. At 6:00 AM, I start for Mandu. I have hired a private car for 2200 rupees…Chappan Dukaan
Stay tuned for my upcoming post: Amazing Madhya Pradesh (Part VI): Mandu
My Indore-Mumbai Indigo flight leaves at 5 PM. But I’m back in Indore by 1:30 PM. There’s enough time for some last-minute shopping. Indore is famous for its sev and namkeen products, and kachoris. After tasting one of the kachoris, freshly out of the kadai, I’m hooked. It’s so yummy! Kachoris are fried balls with dal mixture, but they come in different varieties. Aloo (potato) ki kachori, matar (pea) ki kachori, bhutte (corn) ki kachori, pyaaz (onion) ki kachori… They put sev in everything…in poha, sandwiches, noodles, etc. So how can I not buy these delightful spicy snacks? I pick a few packets of different kinds of sev and a few kachoris to carry home.
At around 2:50 PM, I leave for the airport.
Guys, I hope you enjoyed reading this post 🙂 My next post is on Ujjain. It’s an interesting read too. So see you soon 🙂
Coming next: Amazing Madhya Pradesh (Part II): Ujjain